Well, one kind of hoax, anyway. I'm not a general hoax expert.
When the story is just too perfect, when it fits the stereotype that the hoax perpetrator wants to believe, that's a big clue. Lots of people wanted it to be true that high school boys wearing MAGA hats were saying racist things and even looking a little violent and out of control. So a Native American says "I thought they were going to lynch those black people." Really? You thought those 16-year-olds were going to pull out some rope and wade into a group of black adults, and start dragging them out one-by-one, looking for a tree branch or a light pole?
But it would just be so cool if they were like that. I'll bet they would be like that if they only had the chance. It's not too far-fetched that they could conceivably do that...
The racist note written to a black student having difficulties at Air Force Prep turn out to be written by - the victim. Yet that doesn't matter so much as the idea that it could have been written by someone else, and weneedtohavea
Real hate crimes are usually crude: some jerk shoves someone while insulting them. Those happen. Those are real sexism, homophobia, racism, whatever. But they aren't really interesting enough to make the newspapers. They are over in a minute. They might involve a possibility of real violence, but they just don't have the sexiness that a real stereotype-fulfilling story does. The public demands that a gay martyrdom be real, not just a drug deal gone bad with some other guys who worked for the same pimp.
There was a great one last year, about a black doctor who had struggled under difficult conditions working for the poor all day, then some white bigot called him a racial epithet and squealed his tires getting away in the parking garage, laughing. My cousin posted it. You know I am not tactful, but I worked really hard at gradually revealing that this was actually fiction. I didn't use the words "fake news." Not even at the end when my cousin insisted rather angrily (and another cousin unfriended me over the exchange) that even if it wasn't technically true it was true and important, because real black people go through things like this every day. Except, well, I actually do know a fair number of black doctors, and they all shook their heads and rolled their eyes when I relayed the story over the next two weeks. It should be true, dammit, therefore its falseness is irrelevant.
Yesterday I had a beauty: a woman who claimed that she had encountered a Trump protestor in a MAGA hat and a red, white, & blue top that barely covered her torso - oh, there's a nice touch. Not that no Trump supporter ever dressed that way, but it was very obliging of the woman to be something unsavory as well as stupid in just the right way, isn't it? - who said "But he's our ruler. We have to do what he says."
Uh, Trump supporters have the opposite problem. They might say a lot of silly or obnoxious things, but I think we can fairly rule out the docile followers idea. I've been in many arguments with them online, including here at my own site, and let me assure you, that is not their problem. What you will find are people who say they will refuse to do X, whether the government or even their favorite president says so, and you have to pull them quietly aside and say "Uh, Phil? You actually do have to do that. It's the law. Just sayin'." But hey, it would have been so cool if some trollop actually had said "He's our ruler. We have to do what he says." Those Trump people are so easily led and certainly capable of it, eh? So some woman somewhere - they think - likely said that. And, probably a lot like that woman it the skimpy top who said something (completely unrelated that doesn't fit my current narrative), and was really annoying. So we can call it true-ish. True, really.
Give me a break. You're lying. No one said that.
I am going to guess at the motives or (ahem) reasoning, but I don't insist on these. We don't know others' motives all that well - we seldom even know all of even our own motives - and motives are mixed. Projection is likely. But I think there is this idea that A) they are right-wing, and therefore Justlikenazis not very far below the surface, and we know that real nazis acted like that in another country and completely different cultural context, so...you know...don't you get it? Okay, sure, when you start insisting on things like evidence in 20thC Europe, it was actually the communists who blindly followed leaders, yes. Franco's Spain and Mussolini's Italy were actually highly factionalised countries just barely held together, okay. But it just feels like German nazis are the best comparison here, doesn't it? Because it would be so cool if Trump's supporters turned out to be just like that. It would vindicate us.
Let me throw in a parenting reassurance for free, because there is a parallel. When the school calls and says your kid is getting detention and is in trouble for X, you usually know immediately if this is off-the-wall. All five of my sons were capable of earning a detention, but a few times, there would be this accusation and you would go - hmmm. Not my kid. There is something missing from this story. The school doesn't want to hear your protest, because they deal with parents who are clueless about their kid's misbehavior all the time. Your protest that "This is not my kid's style of misbehavior" will fall on deaf ears. But for good parents, you know. "My could could easily do A, or C, or G. But you are telling me he did E, and there's something wrong here. Hold on."
Wait, this example is much fairer in reverse. My children could have been told a story that "Your dad got in trouble for saying X to a ref." For some values of X, that would be quite possible. Yet for others, my children would shake their head. Nope. Not my dad. Not that one. Someone is making that up.
Once you know to look for poetic perfection as a disproof, the news becomes easier. Bush splitting from the Air National Guard? Too perfect. John Kerry getting hat from a CIA guys? Too perfect.
Bonus extra credit. Some autobiographies fit the mold.