Via hbd*chick is this essay by the anthropologist Peter North How The Pacification of Europe Came To An End. What I wish for you to notice is not North's opinions or conclusion - though those are fun to interact with, but the evidence that people in the past did not think like us. In every few centuries the game changes. We read quotes and small sections of authors from the past and cram those ideas into our current categories. It is not so.
Neither the Enlightenment nor its critics, neither the Catholics nor the Protestants, neither the secularisers nor the traditionalists strongly match up with categories of American belief today. There are enormous exceptions and defections. Prior to that, the beliefs of the Medieval thinkers only partially overlapped those who came before.
Some changes are brand new, others are a recapture or recasting of an older idea. It was a point of particular importance for CS Lewis that modern readers have this drummed into their heads. Our lefts and rights, our blues and reds, our "spiritual" people and skeptics are not having the same arguments people had even fifty years ago, let alone 500. We pretend we understand, but we are largely making this up.