"Our argument, and we're not the first to make this argument, although I think we have some unique takes on the data, our argument is that the population proportion is actually the wrong comparison standard or the wrong benchmark. In fact, I would argue that the population proportion is the wrong benchmark in virtually every study of group outcomes you are interested in: women in STEM, any kind or racial or ethnic group outcomes in income and health, whatever it might be comparing to a group's population level is almost always not going to tell you anything about bias in the decision-making process." Joe Cesario, Michigan State Social Psychology Professor. (Italics mine) He is very big on pre-registration and showing your work.
This came up because of statistics such as blacks being 13% of the population but 35% of (fill in the blank), in this case police shootings. Manifold Podcast transcript.